7.  Cultural Resources: Historic and Archaeological



7.1 Definitions of Terms

Before one can develop a more complete understanding of cultural resources, it is important to understand the nature of these resources and the terms used in pertinent sections of the Central Pine Barrens Plan. Accordingly, the following terms used in this section are defined as follows:

Aboriginal - Pertaining to native inhabitants (i.e., the original Native American inhabitants of Long Island).

Adaptive Reuse - The retrofitting and preservation, as opposed to destruction, of an historic structure for a new purpose. (e.g., the use of an historic residence or for an office.).

Archaeological Resources - Material remains of past habitations or activities which may be below or above ground.

Cultural resource - As defined by the National Park Service in its "Cultural Resources Management Guidelines," cultural resources are:

Those tangible and intangible aspects of cultural systems, both living and dead, that are valued by or representative of a given culture or that contain information about a culture . . . and [they] include but are not limited to sites, structures, districts, objects and artifacts, and historic documents associated with or representative of peoples, cultures, and human activities and events, either in the present or in the past. Cultural resources also can include the primary written and verbal data for interpreting and understanding those tangible resources.

As commonly defined, these may be archaeological (that is, found beneath the surface) or above-ground resources.

These may include, but are not limited to:

1. Components of structures and features (houses, mills, piers, fortifications, earthworks, ditches and mounds, roads, etc.).

2. Artifacts of human manufacture (lithics, pottery, textiles, glass, etc.).

3. Intact or fragmentary objects and artifacts used by humans (crystals, shells, minerals, etc.).

4. By-products, waste products or debris resulting from the manufacture or use of human-made or natural materials (slag, dumps, shell middens, lithic scatters, etc.).

5. Organic material (vegetable and animal remains, etc.).

6. Human remains.

7. Intact, or components of, petroglyphs, pictographs, intaglios or other works of artistic or symbolic representation.

8. Components of shipwrecks.

9. Environmental and chronometric specimens (pollen, seeds, wood, shell, bone, charcoal, tree core samples, certain soils and sediments, etc.).

10. Paleontological specimens that are found in direct physical relationship with a prehistoric or historic resource.

11. Any locale considered sacred or otherwise of special importance to any particular living group.

Cultural Resource Survey - An analysis of a particular parcel undertaken to determine if cultural resources, either historic, prehistoric or archaeological, are present on or beneath the parcel. The Stage (Phase) I cultural resource survey is designed to determine the presence or absence of cultural resources in a project's potential impact area. To facilitate planning, the Stage I survey is divided into two logically progressive units of study: the Stage IA Literature Search and Sensitivity Study and the Stage IB Field Investigation. Stage (Phase) II investigations are conducted to obtain detailed information on the "integrity, limits, structure, function and cultural/historical context of an archaeological site" to determine if it is eligible for listing on the National Register. (1994 New York Archaeological Council standards (referenced in the Appendix)). Stage III investigations are more detailed than those conducted for Stage II investigations and are conducted if adverse impacts are anticipated to occur to an archaeological or historic resource either listed on or eligible for State or National Registers.

Disturbance - A cultural resource site is considered "disturbed" only when it can be documented that all potential cultural remains have been destroyed or removed from their original contexts. The presence of plowing or construction activities does not necessarily indicate total disturbance of a cultural resource. An example of disturbance would include a sand mine where surface and subsurface excavation and removal has extended well below the surface.
 

Historic - Any cultural resource dating from the period between the onset of written records (which on Long Island is typically placed around the time of first European contact in the sixteenth century) and 50 years ago.
 

Historic District - An area designated legally by a governmental body or agency in which historic resources are located and in which a particular set of regulations or guidelines apply to foster the preservation of the historic resources contained within the district. The designation also applies to an area which is generally recognized for its historic resources and is eligible for designation as an historic district.
 

Historically Significant - For purposes of this Plan, the criteria used to determine significance are those adopted for the National and State Registers of Historic Places or local municipalities.
 

Landmark - An historic structure, site, area or other form of cultural resource which has received a designation from a Municipal Cultural Resource Preservation Agency which grants the cultural resource additional protection beyond those afforded to non-landmark cultural resources.
 

National Register - The National Register of Historic Places. An official listing of historic resources established and maintained by the Federal government to foster the preservation of particular cultural resources.

Native American - Pertaining to the original aboriginal inhabitants of Long Island.

The New York Archaeological Council (NYAC) -A professional, non-profit organization comprised of professional New York State archaeologists whose purpose is to ensure maintenance of the highest standards in archaeological investigations and to foster archaeological resource preservation and education.

Paleontological - Pertaining to fossil evidence and/or remains (e.g., bones, leaves).

Prehistoric - Prior to the time of written documentation. On Long Island, this period dates from roughly 10,000 B.C. to the 16th century.

State Register - The New York State Register of Historic Places. An official listing of historic resources established and maintained by New York State to foster the preservation of particular cultural resources.
 

7.2 Overview of Cultural Resources in the Central Pine Barrens

When Walt Whitman described the pine barrens in his writings he noted the:

wide central tracts of pine and scrub oak . . . monotonous and sterile. But many a good day or half day I have, wandering through those solitary crossroads inhaling the peculiar and wild aroma.

The Long Island pine barrens protection area contains a wealth of cultural resources. It contains areas with significant historic and/or archaeological resources worthy of preservation. These resources contribute both to the visual enhancement of the landscape and to present knowledge of land use and ecology in the Central Pine Barrens. Data collected from such resource sites can contribute to our knowledge of past climatic and precolonial ecological conditions, thereby assisting in the development of an ecological model of the Central Pine Barrens. In addition, many significant resources are located together with other sensitive resources such as wetlands. These significant cultural resources also trace, with unusual fidelity, the heritage of this area of Suffolk County.

7.2.1 Prehistoric and Native American Resources

Native Americans, also referred to as American Indians, were the first human inhabitants of the Central Pine Barrens and all of Long Island. Archaeologists believe they arrived in the area around 12,000 years ago; however, most Native Americans feel that their presence has a much greater antiquity. Archaeologists working on Long Island and elsewhere in the northeastern United States usually employ a system of three periods to divide up the span of time between the first settlement of the region by Native Peoples and the arrival of the European explorers and colonists in the sixteenth century. This chronological scheme is shown in the Figure 7-1.

The earliest inhabitants of Long Island are termed Paleo-Indians. Although the date of their initial arrival is not certain, it is fairly clear that they settled in the area not long after the retreat of the glacial ice that covered Long Island during the later stages of the Pleistocene glacial epoch. At that time, Long Island was not an island. Due to the lower level of the sea (atmospheric moisture was frozen as glacial ice), the shoreline of the Atlantic Ocean was hundreds of miles south of its present location. Further, reflecting conditions of a landscape just emerging from the last "ice age," the vegetation was relatively treeless and probably resembled the tundra of modern Alaska and northern Canada. Large mammals (mastodon, mammoth, etc.) roamed the Northeast and were hunted by Paleo-Indians using weapons tipped with a distinctive stone point that was grooved ("fluted") to facilitate its attachment to a spear or dart shaft. Although little is known of Paleo-Indian lifeways, it is assumed (based on comparisons with modern hunting groups and archaeological information from better-known areas of North America) that group sizes were fairly small and that settlements were moved often during the course of a typical year.

The Archaic period was characterized by the gradual development of more-or-less modern environmental conditions. Humans adapted to the abundant resources provided by the interior woodlands, ponds, rivers, and the coastal estuaries by exploiting a broad range of food (e.g. nuts, large and small game, seed-bearing plants, fish, etc.). By 3,000 B.C., Long Island was heavily populated, with population of the entire island probably numbering in the thousands. Archaeological evidence of this apparent "population explosion" is reflected by the large number of archaeological sites dating to this period and by the size of the individual settlements, many of which exceed ten acres. Late Archaic settlements (long and short term) are found in all types of environmental settings, including those which are now within the Central Pine Barrens of interior Long Island.

The so-called Terminal Archaic (1,000 - 700 B.C.) is widely known as a period marked by the practice of elaborate funerary rituals. On Long Island, large cemetery complexes containing cremated human remains, stone bowls made from imported raw materials from Rhode Island, Connecticut, and/or Pennsylvania, fishtail-shaped projectile points, red ocher, and other symbolically important materials date to this time. During this age, pottery made its first appearance.

Archaeologically, little behavioral change was observable during the Woodland period. Some artifact forms were altered (e.g., projectile point shape) and pottery seemed to become increasingly important over time, but the long-established economic pattern of the exploitation of a broad range of natural resources continued. During the Late Woodland (ca. A.D. 1,000-1,500), agriculture (especially corn and beans imported from the American tropics) became very important in the economies of native groups living along the Hudson River and in what is now upstate New York. The importance of agriculture on Long Island during this time is still not well known, and is a topic much debated by archaeologists. Regardless of the importance of foods like corn, beans, and squash in the diet, it is clear that Native peoples on Long Island continued to hunt, gather, and collect the abundant products of the natural environment. This strategic use of a diverse range of available resources characterizes native economies on Long Island to the present day.

Native cultures were greatly changed with the European arrival in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Infectious diseases took a heavy toll and Indians were increasingly "marginalized" economically. However, even though native communities were ravaged by diseases and social disruption, they maintained and nourished their traditional ways of life. There was continuity in belief systems and the structure of social relations, despite the horrendous impact of infectious diseases introduced by the Europeans. These traditions continued well after European contact, and native peoples still actively maintain their ancestral communities and cultures. They live today on State-recognized reservations (Shinnecock and Poospatuck) and in enclaves throughout Long Island.
 
Figure 7-1: Prehistoric Chronology for Long Island
Period Name
Start
End
Characteristics
Late Woodland
1000 a.d.
1500 a.d.
Agriculture begins in Hudson River and/or upstate New York, but status of Long Island agriculture at this time debatable.
Middle Woodland
0 a.d.
1000 a.d.
Little change observable. 
Increased use of pottery. 
Intensive use of coastal resources.
Early Woodland
700 b.c.
0 a.d.
Terminal Archaic
1000 b.c.
700 b.c.
Elaborate burial customs and artifacts. 
First appearance of pottery. 
Stone bowls made from imported materials from elsewhere on East Coast.
Late Archaic
4000 b.c.
1000 b.c.
Increase in number of archaeological 
sites and size of settlements. 
Consumption of shellfish. 
Population numbering in thousands by 3000 b.c.
Middle Archaic
6000 b.c.
4000 b.c.
Appearance of modern flora and fauna.
Early Archaic
8000 b.c.
6000 b.c.
Beginning of adaptation to interior.
Paleo-Indian
10,500 b.c.
8000 b.c.
Arrived shortly after retreat of Late Pleistocene ice. 
Fluted projectile points on weapons. 
Small group sizes. 
Frequent movements of settlements during year.

 

Prehistoric and historic Native American archaeological sites have been found throughout the Central Pine Barrens. These include remote areas without standing water, moraines, areas adjacent to rivers and other surface waters, and coastal areas. A number of sites are known to be present in municipal lands.

7.2.2 Historic and Cultural Resources

In addition to prehistoric resources, many historic resources are found in both the Core Preservation Area and the Compatible Growth Areas. Although somewhat isolated from primary settlements in the colonial (period from approximately 1640 to 1776) and nineteenth century periods, this region traces an unusual variety of historic and cultural features warranting protection.

Historically, lumbering and woodcutting were among Suffolk County's most prominent industries. Before the Civil War, Suffolk was recognized as the first woodcutting county in New York State. Numerous cutting camps sprang up throughout the area to harvest hardwoods, such as white oak, to satisfy New York City's seemingly insatiable appetite for wood. It was used as a fuel and as a building material. Pine was harvested only after hardwoods became scarce. The completion of the Long Island Railroad's main line in 1844 provided a condition in which numerous large scale fires, triggered by engine sparks and cinders, routinely ravaged the young trees spared by the woodcutters. This situation, and the continuing annual fires in various parts of the region, may have perpetuated the "barrens" of today.

Many other traditional activities occurred in the Central Pine Barrens. These activities included cranberry and blueberry farming in the vicinity of the Peconic River, brickmaking, the use of water-powered mills for grinding grain and milling lumber, duck farming, crop farming, nursery farming, operation of taverns, inns and general stores, sandmining, tanning, harvesting of wood (such as Atlantic white cedar) for shipbuilding and shingles, operation of forges for manufacturing iron products from bog iron, charcoal-burning for manufacture of charcoal, operation of gun clubs and hunting lodges and creation of pine tree products from sap (including turpentine and pine-tar).

Extensive remnants of Suffolk's historic past, can be found within the pine barrens zone. The region is dotted with the remains of old carriage roads, townscapes and structures which remain in mute testimony as evidence to the former isolated, inland settlements. Although the pine barrens region is often overlooked in serious evaluations of Long Island's architectural and social history, the region contains excellent examples of American architecture reflecting the 18th through the early 20th century schools. The region was involved in various incidents during the Revolutionary War. Numerous landscape features, such as Camp Upton's World War I trenches, also trace Long Island's heritage. Furthermore, the area contains some of Long Island's most famous landmarks, including magnificent Victorian homesteads, elegant hunting lodges, and the structure which spawned an entire American architectural style, the Big Duck.

A map, prepared by the Suffolk County Department of Planning, showing many of the known historic sites of the Central Pine Barrens is referenced in the Appendix. However, it should be noted that this illustrates only some, not all, of the existing historic resources in the Central Pine Barrens and does not show archaeological or Native American sites.

7.2.3 List of Historic Resources within Brookhaven

The following is a list of historic resources in the Central Pine Barrens portion of the Town of Brookhaven. A more extensive description of these resources is cited in the Appendix. However, this list is by no means all-inclusive of all historic resources in Brookhaven:

Coram Historic District, Coram

Site of Richard W. Smith Tavern and Town Pump, Coram

Coram Mini-District, Coram

Lester H. Davis House, Coram

Natural Swamp and Clay Area, Coram

St. Francis Church, Coram

Isaac Smith House, Coram

Walter Overton House, Coram

S. B. Swezey House, Coram

Washington Memorial Park, Coram

Site of Phannemiller/Ephelant House, Coram

Brewster Terry House, Coram

Hammond/Higgins/Manzoni House, Coram

Site of I. Overton House & Cider Mill, Coram

Gordon Heights District, Gordon Heights

Mary AME Zion Church, Gordon Heights

Mr. Lowry's Casino, Gordon Heights

Gordon House/McNeese Casino, Gordon Heights

Community Missionary Baptist Church, Gordon Heights

Mrs. Armstrong's House, Gordon Heights

The Ebenezer Sabbath Day Church, Gordon Heights

St. Michaels Recreation Center, Gordon Heights

H. D. Petty House, Middle Island

Site of Brewster House, Middle Island

Bayles House, Middle Island

Milestone, Middle Island

Middle Island Historic District, Middle Island

Hudson House, Middle Island

Site of Swezey House, Middle Island

Middle Island Presbyterian Church, Middle Island

Union Cemetery, Middle Island

Lopped Tree, Middle Island

Davis House, Middle Island

Swezey Brick House, Middle Island

"The Elephant Tree," Middle Island

George Albing House, Middle Island

Charles Edwards House, Middle Island

Edwin Edwards House, Middle Island

Major Leek House, Middle Island

Hurtin House Archaeological Site, Middle Island

Methodist Church, Middle Island

Dayton House, Middle Island

School Administration Building, Middle Island

Davis House, Middle Island

Cathedral Pines County Historic Trust Area, Middle Island

Randall Cemetery at The Ridge, Ridge

Randall House, Ridge

New York State Fire Tower, Ridge

Trenches and Bunkers, Town Rifle Range, Ridge

Robert Randall House, Ridge

Lustgarten Neon Sign, Ridge

Cooperative Hunting Area Station, Ridge

Longwood (Smith) Estate, Ridge (listed on the National Register)

The Ridge School, Ridge

Brookhaven National Lab/Camp Upton, Upton

Trenches at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton

Yaphank Historic District, Yaphank

James H. Weeks House, Yaphank

William J. Weeks House Foundation, Yaphank

Michael Hololob House, Yaphank

Mary Louise Booth House, Yaphank

Anthony House, Yaphank

St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Yaphank

Howell-Overhoff House, Yaphank

Hammond House, Yaphank

DeLa Marca-Kovarik House, Yaphank

Homan-Gerard House, Yaphank

Gerard Mill Site, Yaphank

Robert H. Hawkins-Jacobsen House/Homestead, Yaphank (listed on National Register)

Yaphank Community Shop, Yaphank

Yaphank Garage, Yaphank

Wittman Rabbitry, Yaphank

Stroud House, Yaphank

Lopped Trees, Yaphank

Luhly House, Yaphank

Greener House, Yaphank

Neuss-Williams House, Yaphank

Sylvester Homan House, Yaphank

Richard Homan House, Yaphank

Yaphank Union Cemetery, Yaphank

Engelbach House, Yaphank

School, Yaphank

Overton-Mouzakes House, Yaphank

Lakeview Building, Yaphank

Joseph Hololob House, Yaphank

Agnello House and Barn, Yaphank

Herbert House and Milestone, Yaphank

Cook House, Yaphank

Ripple House, Yaphank

Yaphank Presbyterian Church, Yaphank

Presbyterian Parsonage, Yaphank

Arthur Davis House, Yaphank

John Ed Davis House, Yaphank

Homan House, Yaphank

Saggese House, Yaphank

Serino B. Overton House, Yaphank

Overton-Schmidt House, Yaphank

Stills House and Pantentella House, Yaphank

S. F. Norton House, Yaphank

Swezey-Avery House, Main Street

Hoeffner House, Yaphank

Isaac Mills/Nathaniel Tuthill House, Yaphank

D. D. Swezey House, Yaphank

Hawkins Cemetery, Yaphank

Robert F. Hawkins/Dooley House, Yaphank

Mini-replica Octagon Firehouse, Yaphank

M. Homan House, Yaphank

Site of Mordecai Homan House, Yaphank

Philips House, Yaphank

C. Dayton House, Yaphank

S.N. Randall House, Yaphank

Howell House, Yaphank

Siegfried Park, Yaphank

Camp Sobaco, Yaphank

J. P. Mills House, Yaphank

A. Cook House, Yaphank

Long Island Railroad Bridge, Carmans River

Southaven County Historic District, Yaphank

Yaphank County Historic Trust Area (listed on National Register)

Hudson House, Lake Panamoka

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, Rocky Point

Robinson Barn, Rocky Point

RCA Communications Sites (Radio Central), Rocky Point

Howell House, Rocky Point

Solomon Townsend/Jeremiah Petty Forge, Calverton

Brown's Store, Calverton

Brown's Bog Earthen Dam/Cranberry Bog, Calverton

Manorville Depot Historic District, Manorville

Sts. Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Church, Manorville

Manorville Bible Protestant Church, Manorville

Raynor House, Manorville

Yeager House, Manorville

General Store, Manorville

The Maples, Manorville

Morgan House, Manorville

Lutheran Church (Morgan Property), Manorville

Punk's Hole, Manorville

Peterson House, Manorville

Holman House/C. Robinson House, Manorville

Robinson Family Cemetery, Manorville

H. Husted House, Manorville

H. Cozin House, Manorville

Robinson House, Manorville

Old Long Island Railroad Track/Right-of-Way (County Road 91 R.O.W.), Manorville

A. B. Lane House, Manorville

Manorville School (West Manor School), Manorville

Raynor House, Manorville

Schoolhouse, Manorville

Elicha Carter House, Manorville

E. Ahley/Landrella/Schneitzer House, Manorville

L. Carter Barn, Manorville

Mrs. R. Briggs House, Manorville

Manorville Cemetery, Manorville

Cascer Garage, Manorville

South Manor - Brookfield Historic District, Manorville

Brookfield Presbyterian Church, Manorville

Carter House (North) Site, Manorville

Carter House (South) Site, Manorville

Brookfield Cemetery, Manorville

Wading River Road Cemetery, Manorville

Wading River Road Lopped Tree, Manorville

Robinson House, Manorville

S. Davis House, Manorville

M. Raynor House, Manorville

Raynor House, Manorville

South Street Lopped Tree, Manorville

Davis House, Manorville

R. Heinrich House/P. Julian House, Manorville

Thomas Clark Memorial, Manorville

Ruins of Marion DeLavarre Tomb, Eastport

Beebe/Barrett House, Eastport

Hunters Garden, Manorville

Rock Hill, Manorville

Tallmadge Historic Trail, Mount Sinai, Middle Island, Coram, Yaphank

Synagogue Stones, Mount Sinai

7.2.4 List of Historic Resources within Riverhead

Riverhead Town contains numerous historic resources. Many are located along the Peconic River, where a number of mills and forges were found. The following is a list of historic resources in the Central Pine Barrens portion of the Town of Riverhead. A more extensive description of each of these resources is referenced in the Appendix. This list is by no means all-inclusive of historic resources in Riverhead:

Gilbert Raynor House, Manorville

Davis-Johnson Cranberry Bogs, Manorville

Lopped Tree, Manorville

Grumman Airport, Calverton

Babylon Rod and Gun Club, Manorville

Mill Site, Manorville

Rychlinski Blueberry Farm, Manorville

Calverton Pickle Factory, Calverton

Central Hotel, Calverton

Calverton Depot, Calverton

Dickinson House, Calverton

Peconic Mills, Calverton

Warner's Duck Farm, Calverton

Old Forge and Swezey Ice House, Calverton

Camp Wauwepex, Wading River

The Horn Tavern Farm, Wading River

Robert Cushman Murphy County Park - River Road and Swan

Pond Historic Areas, Manorville

7.2.5 List of Historic Resources within Southampton

Although a number of historic resources are likely to be present in the Central Pine Barrens area of Southampton, no comprehensive inventory was available for inclusion in this section. However, these sites constitute a partial listing:

Black Duck Lodge, Hubbard County Park, Flanders

Flanders Men's Club, Flanders

The Big Duck, County Site, Flanders

James Benjamin Homestead (Old Benjamin Homestead), Flanders (listed on National Register)
 

7.2.6 Central Pine Barrens Sites Listed on the National Register

There are a number of sites in the Central Pine Barrens which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. These are as follows:

James Benjamin Homestead (Old Benjamin Homestead), Flanders

St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Yaphank

Longwood (Smith) Estate, Ridge

Robert Hawkins Homestead, Yaphank

Homan-Gerard House and Mills, Yaphank

No single, all-inclusive and comprehensive history or inventory of all known cultural resources currently exists for the Central Pine Barrens. There are, however, separate histories on certain topics in many locations. In addition, there are incomplete inventories such as those cited previously.

7.2.7 Existing Public and Private Programs

The following is an overview of existing public and private programs within the Central Pine Barrens for the protection, preservation and restoration of cultural resources and demonstration programs of traditional industries of the Central Pine Barrens.

7.2.7.1 New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation administers various State laws and regulations concerning cultural resources in the State. These include the New York State Historic Preservation Act of 1980 and Certified Local Government Programs (copies of pertinent laws and regulations are referenced in the Appendix).

The Historic Preservation Act requires that projects sponsored or funded by the State be reviewed for potential impacts to cultural resources; establishes a State Register of Historic Places (similar to the National Register of Historic Places); provides a degree of protection for sites and structures listed on the State Register; and establishes a State Board for Historic Preservation to provide for review of State-sponsored or funded projects which may have impacts on cultural resources.

The Historic Preservation Act was also designed to encourage and assist local governments and private organizations to develop and undertake local preservation programs and activities for the preservation, maintenance and restoration of historical, archaeological and cultural resources. This includes the preparation of "Local Historic Preservation Reports" which cover the current status of local preservation programs; analyzes current preservation problems and proposals for the preservation of cultural resources. In addition, the Historic Preservation Act provides for enactment of local laws and regulations for historic preservation including transfer of development rights, local preservation boards, designations and acquisitions.

The State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation also administers the Certified Local Government program. This program is authorized by the amended National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and provides for grants-in-aid, via the State Historic Preservation Office, to local governments for historic preservation purposes. Aid is available to those local governments which have enacted a local program for historic preservation which meets certain minimum standards (generally requiring stronger local preservation regulations than most municipalities currently have) set forth by the Federal government and the State. As far as is known, none of the local governments within the Central Pine Barrens have preservation programs which have been certified. There are, however, other local governments on Long Island which have received certification for their preservation programs and which are near the Central Pine Barrens. These are the Villages of Sag Harbor and East Hampton.

The State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation also provides review comments to municipalities in regard to potential impacts of development projects on cultural resources. The office informs municipalities of the presence of any known cultural resources in proximity to a site for which information is requested. Part of such information includes New York State Building Inventory Forms known as "Blue Forms," which contain a written and photographic synopsis of cultural resources, primarily historic structures, in the State and which are completed by interested parties. However, some files and information maintained by this agency may not be current. State Parks currently has only one park site in the Central Pine Barrens, Brookhaven State Park located in Ridge and Shoreham, which is undeveloped at present. There are no immediate plans for development of the site as a State Park.

State Parks currently conducts some interpretive demonstration programs at active, developed State Parks located outside of the Central Pine Barrens such as the Caleb Smith State Park in Smithtown. State Parks has no current plan for traditional industries demonstration programs nor programs for restoration of cultural resources in the Central Pine Barrens because these would be provided only for State Parks and the one State Park in the Central Pine Barrens is undeveloped. If Brookhaven State Park were to be developed, or another site were to be acquired by State Parks within the Central Pine Barrens, then the need for such a traditional industries demonstration program could be evaluated.

7.2.7.2 State Environmental Quality Review Act

The current version of the State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA) requires that impacts to cultural resources be considered when reviewing projects. Part 617, Section 617.11(5) of the SEQRA regulations requires that agencies consider the potential for a project to result in:

the impairment of the character or quality of important historical, archaeological, architectural, or aesthetic resources or of existing community or neighborhood character.

In addition, Part 617, Section 617.12(9) of the SEQRA regulations designates as a Type I action:

any Unlisted action (unless the action is designed for the preservation of the facility or site) occurring wholly or partially within, or substantially contiguous to, any historic building, structure, facility, site or district or prehistoric site that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, or that has been proposed by the New York State Board on Historic Preservation for a recommendation to the State Historic Preservation Officer for nomination for inclusion in said National Register, or that is listed on the State Register of Historic Places.

7.2.7.3 U.S. Department of the Interior and the Federal Government

The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and Executive Order 11593 (issued in 1971) set forth the Federal government's regulatory program for preservation of cultural resources (copies are cited in the Appendix). The Preservation Act authorizes the Department of the Interior to establish and maintain the National Register of Historic Places (which includes all types of cultural resources), provides for and encourages a national program of cultural resource protection, provides for grants-in-aid to the states and local governments for cultural resource preservation and delegates certain preservation duties and responsibilities to the States. The Executive Order (11593) requires Federal agencies to consider potential impacts of Federally sponsored or funded programs on cultural resources.

On Long Island and in the Central Pine Barrens, the implementation of these Federal regulations is visible in protection of sites via designation to the National Register and National Landmark status, through programs administered by the State as agent for the Federal government and through preservation funds disbursed via the State.
 

7.2.7.4 The New York State Museum

The State Museum, located in Albany, responds to queries from municipalities regarding potential impacts of development projects on prehistoric and archaeological cultural resources, and the presence of any known cultural resources in proximity to specific sites. As part of this service, the State Museum will also rate a site according to whether or not it contains, or is adjacent to, features which represent a high probability or sensitivity for the presence of such cultural resources. This helps determine the need for a Cultural Resource Survey. Special forms are used for the inquiries and are referenced in the Appendix. The State Museum also maintains a registry of Cultural Resource Surveys.

7.2.7.5 Suffolk County Historic Trust

The definition of "distinctive historical significance" of the Suffolk County Charter is established by:

1. The National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, as authorized under the Federal Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

2. The National Trust for Historic Preservation as set forth in Historic Preservation Tomorrow - Revised Principles and Guidelines, National Trust for Historic Preservation and Colonial Williamsburg, 1976.

The Historic Trust concerns itself with all aspects of the preservation of historic buildings, fences, street furniture, trees (including lopped trees), kettleholes, roads, roadsides, boundary ditches, and historic landmarks. These include, but are not limited to: residences and out buildings; commercial and industrial structures and areas; farm buildings; accessory buildings; engineering works (including trestles, bridges, towers, canals, piers, dry docks, wharfs, waterworks, etc.); lighthouses; government buildings; railroad stations and other railroad facilities; educational buildings (including schools and academies); abandoned religious structures; fortifications and ramparts; Indian fields and village sites; cemeteries and village greens; and archaeological sites and their environs.

The Suffolk County Department of Parks, Recreation and Conservation and its Board of Trustees, together with the Director of Historic Services, should, in most instances, be the stewards of properties dedicated to the Historic Trust with custodianship for each property to be decided individually. In most cases, the Department of Parks will also have custodianship, but it is possible that a particular property, or an item, may be entrusted to the custodianship of another, e.g., another County department or even a local historical society or organization. In the case of roads or highways dedicated, the Department of Public Works normally would be the logical steward, except that the Director of Historic Services should be responsible for supervising such a road's historic integrity.

Dedication of County-owned historic properties to the Historic Trust is resolution of both the Suffolk County Legislature and County Executive. The resolution dedicating County-owned property to the County Historic Trust must specify the purpose(s) for which the property may be used.

Unless authorized by charter law approved upon mandatory referendum, property owned by the County and dedicated under this section to the County Historic Trust shall not be taken nor otherwise disposed of, nor shall it be used for any purpose not specified in the resolution by which the property was dedicated.

Details of Historic Trust dedication and management can be found in the Suffolk County Historic Trust Manual, revised edition 1975 (copy of which is cited in the Appendix). Alteration or change of any Historic Trust site owned by the County is considered a Type I action under SEQRA and requires the preparation and submission of a special form and documentation (copy is referenced in the Appendix). Through the County Trust, the Director of Historic Services of the County Parks Department have been involved in the restoration of historic structures in County Parks.

7.2.7.6. Suffolk County Department of Parks and Recreation

The Suffolk County Department of Parks has a number of sites within the Central Pine Barrens. These include Hubbard County Park in Flanders, Cranberry Bog County Nature Preserve in Riverhead, Southaven County Park in Yaphank and Robert Cushman Murphy County Park along the Peconic River, as well as several other undeveloped parklands.

There are currently no demonstration programs of traditional industries within the Central Pine Barrens provided at any of these parks. The traditional activity of hunting does have long-established roots in several of these sites, some of which contain former hunting lodges and gun clubs. Hunting continues in several of these County parks. The Suffolk County Parks Department is currently researching and analyzing the possibility of providing programs within these sites which would replicate traditional industries which formerly occurred in each particular park site.

Traditional industries which occurred within or adjacent to these sites included cranberry farming, milling of lumber and grain, cordwood production and harvesting of Atlantic white cedar for shipbuilding and the manufacture of shingles. An example of a demonstration program might center on Cranberry farming. It formerly occurred at both the Cranberry Bog County Nature Preserve and the Robert Cushman Murphy Park. The county possesses the tools which were used by the original farmers of the area. They could be used if a demonstration program is initiated. The infrastructure of the bog system could be restored as part of the program. Other potential demonstration programs could revolve around sawmills and grist mills, since such milling operations occurred within or adjacent to several of the above-named parks.

In addition, the possibility of providing an actual structure for holding interpretive programs, including those related to traditional industries demonstrations, could be examined. Several of the County sites contain historic structures, and those of more recent vintage could perhaps be restored for such educational uses. The potential for cooperative efforts in conjunction with other agencies and organizations could also be examined. It should be noted that this agency has prepared an inventory of archaeological and historic resources for many of its properties in the Central Pine Barrens.

7.2.7.7 Town of Southampton

The Town of Southampton does not have a comprehensive listing of known cultural resources within the Central Pine Barrens. However, the Town does have a Town Historian who maintains historical records of the Town and provides guidance and input with regard to historical structures in the Town.

Town Law #40 provides some oversight with regard to historic structures. It also established a Town Landmark committee and procedures for providing protection of sites designated as Town Landmarks. This Committee advises the Town Board on historic sites and structures, and works in conjunction with the Town Planning Board and Town Planning Department in protecting historic sites (more detailed information is referenced in the Appendix). The Town Planning Department utilizes SEQRA, the State Historic Office Archaeological Sensitivity Map, Suffolk County Archaeological Association archaeological sensitivity map and other criteria (including the presence of certain ecological or geological features such as outwash plains north of the Ronkonkoma Moraine, ponds, streams, kettleholes and estuaries) to determine when a Cultural Resource Survey should be conducted for development sites. The use of certain land use techniques such as clustering has been employed to provide protection for archaeological sites when they are discovered. The Town is restructuring its land use programs and is currently preparing an update of its comprehensive plan which will include an inventory of cultural resources.

7.2.7.8 Town of Riverhead

The Town of Riverhead has an Historic Landmarks Committee and an Architectural Review Board which review some projects on historic sites. A survey of historic sites was conducted by the Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities in 1977 for historic structures in the Town. More recently, an historic structures survey is being conducted for a Business Improvement District in the Town. Additionally, the Town has a Town Historian who provides input regarding historic sites and cultural resources.

7.2.7.9 Town of Brookhaven

In the Town of Brookhaven, Chapter 85, Article XVII of the Town Code establishes an Historic District Advisory Committee, Town Historic Districts, Town Landmarks and procedures for reviewing potential impacts to Historic Districts and Landmarks, such as proposed demolitions (a copy of the pertinent code section is cited in the Appendix).

The Historic District Advisory Committee advises the Town Board and Planning Board with regard to impacts on Town Historic Districts and Town Landmarks. There are currently two Town Historic Districts in Brookhaven in the Central Pine Barrens: the Yaphank Historic District which encompasses Main Street and a portion of Yaphank-Middle Island Road in the center of Yaphank and the Longwood Historic District which encompasses wholly Town-owned land located on the north and south sides of Longwood Road, east of Smith Road and west of William Floyd Parkway in Ridge. The Town Historic District Advisory Committee has also prepared and published a comprehensive handbook to be used in review of projects in historic districts and those involving historic landmarks and for use in renovation and restoration of structures and sites (a copy is referenced in the Appendix).

The Town Department of Planning, Environment and Development currently reviews projects for potential impacts on cultural resources. The Division of Environmental Protection maintains an inventory of prehistoric, archaeological and historic sites (both in graphic map form and written form) which it utilizes in determining the potential for impacts on such resources by development. During the course of SEQRA reviews, the Division requests the preparation of Cultural Resource Surveys for development projects which may have an adverse impact on cultural resources. This is based on consultation with other agencies including New York State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), review of the cultural resource maps, site inspections and procedures established by the Division's former part-time Cultural Resource Analyst/Archaeologist.

An informal agreement between the Division of Environmental Protection and the Building Division requires review of all demolition permit applications for potential impacts to cultural resources, prior to issuance of the permit. If significant cultural resources, such as an historic house, are determined to be present, mitigation and alternatives are investigated. These include the preparation of a Cultural Resource Survey or Building Survey and/or the potential for donating the structure to a cultural resource preservation organization.

The Town Historian preserves and maintains Town historical records and provides historical information in response to queries. The Historian is also responsible for the maintenance of Town-owned historic cemeteries. The Town Historian is responsible for overseeing restoration of certain Town-owned historic structures, especially the Smith Estate at Longwood, and for overseeing the Town's annual Longwood Fair held every September at the Smith Estate. The primary theme of this fair is historic. The Town fair includes demonstrations of traditional industries, though not necessarily those directly transferable to the Central Pine Barrens, and provides a forum for various historic preservation organizations.

7.2.7.10 The Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities

The Society for Preservation of Long Island Antiquities (SPLIA) owns, preserves and maintains several historic sites on Long Island. In addition, this organization provides expert input, upon request, to various agencies and organizations in regard to cultural resource preservation. It also maintains an historic research library. This organization has no official role, but was involved in completing the New York State Historic Resources Inventory for Brookhaven Town in the 1970s and early 1980s. It was also involved in the inventories conducted for Riverhead Town. The organization does not maintain any historic structures or sites, or archaeological sites, within the Central Pine Barrens and is not interested at this time in management of cultural resources in the Central Pine Barrens. Additional commentary from this organization is referenced in the survey in the Appendix.

7.2.6.11 The Suffolk County Archaeological Association

The Suffolk County Archaeological Society (SCAA) is concerned with the discovery, preservation and study of archaeological resources in Suffolk County. The Society includes professionally-trained members who provide technical input on archaeological resources, upon request, to both public and private agencies and organizations. In addition, the Society is involved in fostering education about such matters and has published an extensive body of research publications in the field.

The Society also sponsors a series of demonstration programs. These are the Long Island Native Life and Archaeology program at the Hoyt Farm Preserve in Commack and the Colonial Life and Technology Program (detailed descriptions of these programs are referenced contained in the Appendix), both of which are open to the general public. The SCAA notes that there is a movement towards increasing student awareness and participation in such programs, especially to foster a sense of stewardship.

Consideration could be given to the possibility that this organization could be involved in programs related to Central Pine Barrens industries, perhaps even occasionally housed in appropriate Central Pine Barrens sites. This organization would be interested in the management of cultural resources in the Central Pine Barrens as it originated the first Cultural Resource Survey of Suffolk County in 1978. The SCAA has attempted to obtain funding to have this inventory updated but has been unable to procure such funds. The SCAA believes that a comprehensive, current inventory of cultural resources in the Central Pine Barrens should be conducted to guide development. It further recommends the hiring of a full or part-time archaeologist or cultural resource analyst to guide Commission decisions and review of matters involving cultural resources and to ensure the quality of Cultural Resource Surveys conducted in the Central Pine Barrens. Additional commentary from this organization is referenced in the survey in the Appendix.

7.2.7.12 Manorville Historical Society

The Manorville Historical Society is a chartered historical society which is concerned with the collection, preservation and dissemination of information regarding the history of Manorville, and with the preservation, repair and restoration of historic sites in Manorville. This organization is also involved in the acquisition and preservation of books, manuscripts, pictures, relics and other articles of historic interest related to Manorville. Additionally, the Manorville Historical Society is involved in the recognition of historic sites and their designation as landmarks.

This organization currently leases the former West Manor Schoolhouse which it is in the process of restoring. It is also currently involved in the protection of area cemeteries thus ensuring that they receive proper care. The Society recommends more care be granted to historic sites, especially cemeteries, and that development review provide for a greater accounting of, and protection for, cultural resources. Additional commentary is provided in the survey referenced in the Appendix.

7.2.7.13 Yaphank Historical Society

The Yaphank Historical Society is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1974. It is devoted to the promotion and encouragement of historical research. Subject areas of particular interest are: the gathering and dissemination of information concerning the early history of the Yaphank Fire District; the gathering and preserving of books, manuscripts, papers and relics relating to the early history of Yaphank and contiguous areas; marking areas of historic interest with monuments and markers; acquiring or obtaining custody of historic places; acting as the unofficial caretaker of the Town's Yaphank Historic District; promoting the preservation and restoration of all historic structures and sites within the Yaphank Fire District and surrounding areas; and, providing historical research materials for public use and education. It also maintains inventories of historic sites in the area.

It does not regularly review development projects but provides comments to them if the Society determines that the project has the potential to have an adverse impact on cultural resources. The Society is responsible, via a cooperative effort with Suffolk County, for the maintenance and management of the Robert Hewlett Hawkins House (ca. 1850 and listed on the National Register) located on Yaphank Avenue. The Society is also prepared to be involved in the restoration and management of other historic sites in the area within the Central Pine Barrens. Additional commentary from this organization is referenced in the survey in the Appendix.

7.2.7.14 The Nature Conservancy

The Nature Conservancy owns and/or manages a number of holdings in the Central Pine Barrens. At present, there are no identified cultural resources on these sites. The Nature Conservancy has stated that if they did encounter such resources, they would be protected and included in management plans for their sites and would cooperate with other agencies in their protection. However, cultural resources are not contained within the mission of this organization. Additional commentary from this organization is cited in the survey in the Appendix.

7.2.7.15 Suffolk County Historical Society

The Suffolk County Historical Society was founded in 1886. Its primary purpose is to collect, preserve and interpret the history of Suffolk County, including that of the Central Pine Barrens. The Society has three main areas of operation: a museum open to the public, a research library and archives available for public use and a department of education which is responsible for providing educational programs for schools. The Society holds exhibitions on various historical topics and prepares and conducts interpretive program of traditional industries from Suffolk County's past. This organization could provide interpretive and demonstration programs of traditional industries of the Central Pine Barrens.

7.2.7.16 Other Organizations

The Suffolk County Cooperative Extension operates the Suffolk County Farm which is located in Yaphank just outside, and south of, the Central Pine Barrens boundaries. The farm provides interpretive programs which include demonstrations of farming activities which formerly occurred in the Central Pine Barrens. Consideration could be given to tapping the technical expertise of the farm staff in developing demonstration programs of traditional Pine Barrens industries.

Although not located in the Central Pine Barrens, Old Bethpage Village Restoration in Nassau County, a recreation of an historic village of the mid-19th Century, may be able to provide technical input concerning historical issues. Some of their programs could be emulated in the Central Pine Barrens. Various traditional trades of the mid-1800s are demonstrated at the Restoration including blacksmithing, hat-making, farming and operation of a general store. In addition, the Restoration has extensive technical expertise in restoration of historic sites. The Shinnecock Nation, whose reservation is located in Southampton east of the Central Pine Barrens, annually sponsors a pow wow on Labor Day weekend as part of their continuing program of cultural awareness. In addition, the Shinnecocks have recently developed a cultural center and museum in Southampton and a program of weekend interpretive and traditional industries camps for non-natives.